Motion in two dimensions and gravitation, Physics and scientific help

    Question description

    (8 points)

    Score

    1. 
    During a medieval siege of a castle, the attacking army uses a
    trebuchet to hurl heavy stones at the castle walls. If the trebuchet launches
    the stones with a velocity of +30.0 m/s at an angle of 50.0°, how long does it
    take the stone to hit the ground? What is the maximum distance that the trebuchet
    can be from the castle wall to be in range? How high will the stones go? Show
    all your work.
    Answer:

    (8 points)

    Score

    2. 
    A 70.0 kg astronaut is training for accelerations that he will
    experience upon reentry. He is placed in a centrifuge (r = 10.0 m) and spun at a constant angular velocity of 16.3 rpm.
    Answer the following:
    a. 
    What is the angular velocity of the centrifuge in rad/s?
    b. 
    What is the linear velocity of the astronaut at the outer edge of the
    centrifuge?
    c. 
    What is the centripetal acceleration of the astronaut at the end of the
    centrifuge?
    d. 
    How many g’s does the
    astronaut experience?
    e. 
    What is the centripetal force and net torque experienced by the
    astronaut? Give magnitudes and directions.
    Show your
    work.
    Answer:

    (9 points)

    Score

    3. 
    An astronaut lands on an alien planet. He places a pendulum (L = 0.200 m) on the surface and sets it
    in simple harmonic motion, as shown in this graph.
    [img width=”354″ height=”253″ src=”file:///C:/Users/Spare/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.jpg” v_shapes=”_x0000_i1025″> NUMBER 1Answer the
    following questions:
    a. 
    What is the period and frequency of the pendulum’s motion?
    b. 
    How many seconds out of phase with the displacements shown would graphs
    of the velocity and acceleration be?
    c. 
    What is the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of the planet in
    m/s2? Determine the number of g-forces.

    Show any
    necessary calculations.
    Answer:(8 points)

    Score

    1.  Explain how Einstein’s
    contribution to understanding the force between the earth and the moon differed
    from Newton’s.
    Include a brief statement of Einstein’s explanation in your answer.
    Answer:
    (9 points)

    Score

    2. 
    Saturn has a radius of about 9.0 earth radii, and a mass 95 times the
    Earth’s mass. Estimate the gravitational field on the surface of Saturn
    compared to that on the Earth. Show your work.
    Answer:(9 points)

    Score

    1.  An experiment was devised to
    investigate the effects on the temperature of a cup of coffee when cream is
    added at different time intervals. Hot and cold water were used instead of
    coffee and cream. First, a container of water heated to 80°C was allowed to sit
    for 15 minutes. Its temperature was measured at regular intervals. Next,
    similar temperature measurements were taken for 15 minutes on a new container
    of heated water, but this time some cold water was added after the 2-minute
    reading. Finally, the procedure was repeated except that for this last test,
    the cold water was added after the 12-minute reading. The resulting recorded
    temperatures were plotted on the graph shown here. NUMBER2

    Based on the information given here,
    answer the following questions about the experiment.
    · 
    What question was asked in the experiment?
    · 
    What was the hypothesis, expressed as an if-then statement?
    · 
    What were the independent and dependent variables?
    · 
    What was the control in the experiment?
    · 
    Were there any sources of error in the experiment? If so, what?
    · 
    What could you conclude from the data?
    Answer:
    (9 points)

    Score

    2. 
    Compare and contrast deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning. Based
    on the information given here, answer the following questions about the
    experiment:
    · 
    What are the qualities of deductive reasoning?
    · 
    What are the qualities of inductive reasoning?
    · 
    Throughout the history of physics, when did these types of reasoning
    come into play?
    · 
    Provide one example of a physicist who used deductive reasoning, one
    who used inductive reasoning, or one who used both.
    Answer:
    (7 points)

    Score

    3.  The data in Light-Duty Vehicles
    (1975–2006) show the efficiency of light-duty vehicles from 1975 (leftmost
    point of the connected line) to 2006 (rightmost point of the connected line).
    Each point represents a year in chronological order from the left end to the
    right.

    Data
    adapted from
    http://www.sightline.org/images/blog-2008/Mileage-horsepower-EPA-600.gifNUMBER3
    Look at
    the graph carefully and answer the following questions:
    · 
    What generalizations can you make about changes in fuel efficiency
    (miles per gallon, MPG) over the course of the study?
    · 
    What generalizations can you make about changes in engine performance
    (horsepower) over the course of the study?
    · 
    What generalizations can you make about changes in vehicle efficiency
    (horsepower multiplied by MPG) over the course of the study?
    Answer:

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